Performance stage lighting solutions

Overview of stage performance lighting projects

Take an outdoor stage as an example, with singing and dancing electronic music performances as the main performance scene. The internal main stage is 24M wide, the stage is 18M deep, and the stage height is 8M. It can accommodate dozens of people performing large-scale performances on the same stage, as well as other large-scale music concerts, variety shows, dance parties, dramas, dance dramas, conferences, movies, etc. The functional requirements of the performance stage lighting system are to meet the needs of various comprehensive performance activities, and to ensure the lighting requirements for large and medium-sized conferences and live television broadcast recordings. We carry out the overall design of the performance stage lighting scheme based on this functional positioning. When designing stage lighting, we fully consider the cooperation between lighting, stage machinery and other related majors to technically ensure that the performance stage becomes a first-class performance venue in the country. On the premise of ensuring practicality and sufficient use, we pursue economy, advancement, security and scalability. The overall lighting system design, configuration and layout of the performance stage meet the requirements of various theatrical performances. The lighting of the entire stage must be scientific, reasonable and coordinated. The stage lighting layout is divided into the inner and outer areas of the stage. It is equipped with basic lamp positions and can be flexibly adjusted to meet the needs of performances and other functional purposes. Lighting in stage performances usually consists of top light, surface light, side light (column light), slap, backlight, overseas light, auxiliary light, etc. Commonly used lights include imaging lights, pattern lights, overhead lights, moving head beam lights, dyed par lights, laser lights, follow-up lights, etc.
When designing the signal control network system, we fully understood the design ideas of performance stage lighting designers, and drew heavily on the successful experience of newly built domestic stages. We have a very in-depth understanding of the lighting control requirements, and the overall design ideas are comprehensive and thoughtful in application scope and layout. Reasonable and in place. In order to meet the above performance functions, the stage lighting system design must achieve:

1. The stage lighting system must be advanced, practical and safe, and the design must meet the requirements of the owner’s management;

2. The working mode of the stage lighting system should be coordinated with the lighting mode of the auditorium, and its light color, brightness and scene control should be designed in a unified manner;

3. Each channel of dimming or direct loop is not less than 6KW, and the output power can be set; the control system communication protocol adopts TCP/IP or DMX512 protocol;

4. Provide as many light projection positions as possible. Each stage position has at least three or more light projection angles to provide a three-dimensional sense of light and prevent glare, reflected light and useless light spots;

5. The lighting control system ensures absolutely safe and reliable performances and performance activities as the most fundamental requirement. Using mature technologies, products and the latest processes, the technical level, performance and parameters of the lighting control system have reached the international advanced level.

6. The selected lighting system control equipment takes into account the usage habits of domestic and foreign performance groups and lighting engineers; the system can be compatible with and connected to various lighting control equipment from all manufacturers and different communication protocols.

7. According to the principle of “leaving margin”, all lighting equipment and network equipment are designed and equipped so that the lighting system can provide a sustainable upgrade and expansion equipment system platform for future technological development.

8. Use professional stage lighting that has high color rendering, so that stage lighting does not distort the color of the leaders’ clothing and stage scenery, and meets the color temperature requirements of the lighting source for television recording or broadcasting.

Outdoor stage lighting design instructions

1. Design basis
According to Party A’s needs and requirements and the information provided
JG/J-57-2000/J67-2001 “Stage Building Design Code”
JG/J16-2008 “Design Code for Electrical Appliances in Civil Buildings”
GB/J16-92 (revised in 1995) “Code for Fire Protection Design of Buildings”
GB/T50314-2000 “Intelligent Building Design Standards”
GB/T50311-2000 “Design Code for Integrated Wiring Engineering of Buildings and Building Groups”
GB/T50312-2000 “Code for Acceptance of Integrated Wiring System Engineering for Buildings and Building Groups”
GB/50259-96 “Code for Construction and Acceptance of Electrical Lighting Devices in Electrical Installation Engineering”
GB/50169-92 “Code for Construction Quality Acceptance of Grounding Devices in Electrical Installation Projects”
GB/J232 “Code for construction and acceptance of electrical installation installation projects”
GB/50300 “Unified Standard for Construction Quality Acceptance of Construction Projects”
GB/50303 “Code for Construction Quality Acceptance of Building Electrical Installation Projects”
GB/50057 “Lightning Protection Design Code for Buildings”
GB/T14549/93 Power quality, public grid harmonics
GB/T126661/6/90 Flame resistance assessment standard for cables
GB/50217/94 Cable design specifications
GB/50258/96 Cable laying specifications
GB/T15734-1995 “Radio disturbance characteristics limits and measurement methods of electronic dimming equipment”
GB/T7002-86 “Photometric Test of Project Lighting Lamps”
GB/7000.14-2000 “Safety Requirements for Ventilated Lamps”
GB/7000.15-2000 “Safety Requirements for Lighting in Stage Lighting, Television, Film and Photography Places (Indoor and Outdoor)”
In order to meet the performance-oriented functions, the stage lighting system design must follow the following five design principles: safety and reliability, high visibility, energy saving and environmental protection, advancement and scalability.
1. Security and reliability (double backup of optical fiber backbone network and main control equipment)
Safety is an eternal topic. It is the most basic guarantee condition required for high-performance stage professional lighting systems. This design plan will ensure the requirements from the following two aspects.
1.1. Control system equipment
As the throat of the lighting system, the stability and reliability of the control system equipment will directly affect the normal operation and performance of the entire system. Therefore, configuring stable and reliable control equipment is a prerequisite that must be considered. In the design plan, optical fiber network intelligent dimming cabinets, pass-through cabinets, computer light consoles, and professional network dimming consoles are selected.
The fiber optic network intelligent dimming/pass-through cabinet has anti-interference capabilities that meet the national first-class standards, has multi-level overcurrent/short circuit protection measures, and has three signal interfaces: fiber optic, Ethernet, and DMX, and can report three-phase current to the network system. , voltage, fan operation and each loop parameter (current, voltage, temperature and switch status), and has a signal power-off protection function, which does not affect the execution of signal instructions and ensures that the system works safely and reliably.
The computer light console and professional dimming console work stably and reliably: they use electronic hard disks and U disk storage at the same time, and have network backup functions. They can back up data to designated PCs and work online with the main and auxiliary stations, and the auxiliary stations continuously track the main stations. , to achieve seamless switching; the dimming cabinet status and data locking can be viewed in real time to prevent accidental modification and other functions. It has functions such as field, set control, effects, groups, color changer control, macro, curve, report and viewing, and can be edited and modified, and has manual field and light cut functions;
1.2. Signal transmission system
The stability and reliability of the network transmission system are necessary conditions for smooth and safe transmission of lighting control signals. The system network architecture uses optical fiber Ethernet as the backbone communication network.
Multi-mode optical fiber is used as the main communication medium, which has long transmission distance, fast speed and strong anti-interference. Generally speaking, the entire lighting system design must have multiple safe, stable, and reliable system safeguards; as well as future system upgrade requirements.
1.3. High visibility
The stage lighting system will meet the requirements of the meeting from four aspects: illumination, color rendering, color temperature, and glare, and create a good visual light environment for the meeting.
Illumination index: The average illumination of the stage is not less than 1200LUX, and the brightest area in the center can reach 1500LUX; relative to any position in the stage area, there are no less than three directions of light, and the maximum average illumination of white light in each direction is not less than 1000 LUX;
Color rendering index: Ra>90;
Color temperature: The color temperature of the stage lighting is 3200±150K during a meeting and 5600±500K during a performance.
Glare: Special attention should be paid to preventing glare on the stage. The generation of glare is directly related to the projection angle of the lamp, especially the position of the surface light, slap and false proscenium, so the projection angle of the lamp should be controlled at Between 30-60 degrees, this plan chooses the most ideal angle of 45 degrees.

1.4. Energy saving and environmental protection
In the design, operation management and operating cost factors are penetrated into every design link. We use technologically advanced, energy-saving and environmentally friendly system equipment, and use a large number of three-primary color cold light sources as the main lights for the performance, which are characterized by high efficiency, low energy, high brightness, low temperature and long life. At the same time, a modern hardware platform is built for stage management to achieve efficient and low-cost operation goals.
1.5. System advancement
According to the fact that the stage lighting system can meet the main functions of holding performances, the following four advanced technologies are used in this design plan:
Use stage lighting with high color rendering properties;
Adopt a lighting console with powerful control and editing functions;
Adopt intelligent optical fiber network dimming/pass-through cabinet;
Optical fiber is used as the main communication network to ensure that the system is foolproof.
The stage lighting network control system is an integration of a new generation of high-speed network and intelligent digital control equipment, using a design in which fiber optic Ethernet and DMX512 coexist. This dual-signal data transmission system not only meets current usage requirements, but also leaves ample room for expansion for future system upgrades. Utilizing the high-speed and large-capacity characteristics of optical fiber to achieve high-speed Ethernet transmission and strong scalability, and based on the fact that most equipment in the current professional arena uses DMX512 signal control, it scientifically integrates multiple signal transmission methods into a unified In the mixed signal transmission network, the network signal is directly sent to each user point, so that the stage lighting system has good development potential and openness to adapt to the needs of high-speed and effective signal transmission, system expansion and continuous technology upgrades.
1.6. System scalability
To design a complete and stable stage lighting system, in addition to having a very good lighting configuration, the various compatibility and scalability of the selected equipment should also be considered. Due to the continuous development of technology and the endless emergence of new equipment, the design and installation of each project cannot always be the most advanced and perfect, but we have fully considered future system expansion requirements in our design. This is reflected in the following three aspects:
Dimming/pass-through cabinet: adopts a unified output standard, rated output power per circuit: 6KW, and the output size can be set, which improves the safety of the equipment. The control system uses the same data format and can be replaced with each other or controlled at the same time, which greatly facilitates lighting designers.
Communication protocol: The underlying protocol of the stage lighting control system is the internationally accepted DMX512 protocol. Most digital devices such as digital consoles, dimming/pass-through cabinets, computer lights, and LED lamps can run stably on the stage lighting system network.
Standardization of equipment and accessories: The main equipment of the system all comply with national standards and meet the IS9001 international quality certification. System design, pipeline selection, and supporting construction comply with relevant national industry standards or specifications. The selection of connectors and wires must ensure safety, reliability and durability, and comply with national quality standards or corresponding national electrical and related standards.

2. Project implementation instructions
2.1. Design overview
The engineering design of stage lighting must meet the three aspects of light area control, light color control, and light quantity control. The organic combination of the three is a prerequisite for producing stage light with aesthetic value in the performance space.
Light zone control – the control of the performance lighting area, its purpose is to use light to control the audience’s attention and guide the audience to watch the performance objects purposefully. And create variable performance space according to plot needs.
Light color control – the control of light color display, its purpose is to create a color and light atmosphere based on people’s physiological and psychological characteristics and associations with life, so that the audience can gain a visual experience of color.
Light quantity control – the control of changes in the intensity of light. Its purpose is to use the intensity changes of light to adjust the artistic effect of light, to better obtain the spatial light and dark effect in terms of changing the sense of time and space, cutting plot paragraphs, etc.
Stage lighting is the soul of stage art. Perfect lighting configuration and application are necessary conditions for a successful performance. Stage lighting, to sum up, needs to highlight its characteristics from four aspects:
Freehand brushwork – to enable the audience to see the scenery on the stage well, that is, to correctly understand the creative intention of drama and dance.
Realism – making the stage look like a real life scene, that is, the realistic response effect of lighting.
Beauty – the stage should be presented beautifully so that the audience can have a pleasant feeling that matches the scene.
Expression – To exaggerate the thoughts and emotions of drama, dance drama, etc.
These are set off by harmonious lighting. However, in order to obtain clear vision in the stage, not only reasonable illumination is required, but also uniform illumination distribution. Therefore, reasonable illumination and its uniformity are the basic conditions to ensure the visibility of objects. In order to solve this question, we Use the ratio of the maximum illumination value to the minimum illumination value or its reciprocal to control, that is, approximately within the range of 3:2 or 2:1.
2.2. Stage lighting circuit distribution
The design of the stage lighting circuit is the focus of a stage lighting design, because good design can provide lighting creators with space for artistic creation and technical support for flexible lighting during performances other than meetings. In other words, lighting circuits must be designed at all possible lighting locations on the stage, and these circuits must be allocated reasonably and scientifically.
The technical performance of the large stage requires that multiple leaders in the entire stage area or multiple actors in the same performance area can be lit simultaneously. The brightness, color temperature, and color of the lights can be flexibly adjusted. The lighting arrangement can achieve a satisfactory light projection angle for any area, thereby achieving multi-directional and multi-angle lighting, providing the necessary technical conditions to create an ideal performance environment and artistic effect.
1. Surface light configuration instructions
As the main front light of the performance area, the surface light is mainly used to illuminate the performance area in front of the stage. It plays a role in front lighting for the performers on the stage, for character modeling or to make the objects on the stage present a three-dimensional effect. Arrange the light according to the light projection distance to ensure that the surface light projection effect is achieved, the light spot is uniform and the illumination is consistent.
Arrangement and projection method of lamps:
Vertical projection: achieve a uniform effect under the stage performance area;
Cross projection: Enhance the brightness of the center area and depth of the stage;
Key projection: Enhance the lighting of local stage performance areas.
2. Slap configuration instructions
The lights projected onto the stage from the slap rooms on both sides of the stage auditorium are used as modeling lights in the diagonal direction in front of the stage to enhance the three-dimensional sense of the characters and scenery and form a lighting effect on the front side. The projection angle of the slap is lower than that of the surface light, and the projection distance is closer than that of the surface light. The lighting requirements are similar to those of the surface light. The projected beam cannot overflow beyond the stage mouth.
Slap is the auxiliary light for face light and is used for character modeling;
The color atmosphere of the stage can be rendered from one or both sides;
The outer light and the inner light are cross-projected to obtain a larger light projection range;
When two or more rows of lights with the same light color are projected at the same time, the light with a higher position usually projects the high beam area, and the light with a lower position usually projects the low beam area.
3. Side light configuration instructions
The function of side light is to create a sense of direction of the light source from the side of the stage, creating a sense of hierarchy and three-dimensionality for the leaders or actors on the stage. It can be used as auxiliary lighting to illuminate the actor’s face, and can enhance the level of the scene to render the characters and the stage space environment. Factors such as the angle, direction, distance of the light, type of lamp, power, etc. will all cause various side lighting effects.
Arrangement and projection method of lamps: The projection distance of the side light is from near to far, and the projection angle is from near to far. There are many changes. The modeling light from one side or both sides can emphasize and highlight the outline of the side, which is suitable for expressing relief. , characters and other effects with a sense of volume. Unilateral light can show a strong contrast between yin and yang. Bilateral light can express splint light with personalized characteristics, but the light ratio of the front auxiliary light and the side light needs to be adjusted to obtain a more complete modeling effect.
4. Column light configuration instructions
The cylindrical lights set up on both sides of the stage curtain line are column lights, and the light is emitted from both sides of the stage to the performance area; it is mainly used to make up for the lack of face light and slap, and can also be used as the main light in the middle and back performance areas. need. The arrangement and projection method of lamps and lanterns: The arrangement and projection method of lamps and lanterns are basically the same as slaps.
5. Instructions for the configuration of the film light on the false stage
Lighting is set up in the upper area of the false proscenium within the stage curtain line, and the light is emitted from the front of the upper section of the false proscenium to the stage area; it is mainly used to make up for the lack of deep surface light on the stage, and can be used as the main lighting requirement for the rostrum in the middle and back fields. Arrangement and projection method of lamps: The arrangement and projection method of lamps are basically the same as surface light.
6. Toplight and backlight configuration instructions
The top light is set up above the stage every 2.0 meters. The power supply hangs down from the stage ceiling through multi-core cables. There are cable baskets on both sides of the light boom. The lamps are hung under the light boom. Their functions It is the necessary lighting for the deep performance space of the stage. The top light includes forward light and backlight, which can be overlapped on the same light pole. The lamps can be configured according to the needs of the performance.
Arrangement and projection method of lamps: The first top light is connected with the surface light to illuminate the main stage area, paying attention to the height of the characters when connecting; the following several lights can be projected directly behind the stage according to the needs of the plot, or can be projected vertically downward, or It can be used as a backlight to project forward; thereby enhancing the lighting of the stage characters and scenery space. The front and rear lights are connected to achieve relatively uniform color and brightness in the stage performance area.
7. Sky light configuration instructions
Contrary to the ground row lights, the sky row lights use diffused projection lamps from top to bottom to project light and render colors to the upper part of the stage canopy. They are usually used in conjunction with the floor row lights to make the color changes richer. The lamps are used in combination with single lamps. Lamp arrangement and projection method: Rows of lamps are evenly placed in front of the stage canopy to project the sky down to show the horizon, horizontal lines, sunset, etc. They are usually used in conjunction with floor lamps to make the light color changes richer.
8. Ground lighting configuration instructions
Contrary to the sky row lights, the floor row lights are diffused projection lamps that project light and render colors to the lower part of the stage canopy from bottom to top. They are usually used in conjunction with the sky row lights to make the color changes richer. Use single lamp combination. Ground lighting direction: installed on the front panel of the canopy, 2.8m-3.5m away from the canopy.
Lamp arrangement and projection method: Rows of lamps are evenly placed in front of the stage canopy to illuminate the canopy upward to express the horizon, horizon, sunset, etc. They are usually used in conjunction with sky row lights to make the light color changes richer.
9. Follow spotlight configuration instructions
Lamps designed based on the principles of optical imaging and zoom have functions such as changing the size, color, light and dark, virtual reality, etc. of the aperture. During the performance, they are installed on a special bracket to follow the movement of the actors and at the same time enhance the brightness of the illumination.To increase the audience’s attention, it can be set in various positions in the performance stage space to achieve partial lighting effects on the actor’s half body, whole body, long distance and small range. Sometimes, light chasing can also be used to express abstract and illusory stage plots.
10. Computer light configuration instructions
Intelligent lighting is the inevitable development trend of stage lighting in the 21st century. In order to meet the lighting needs of various performances, moving head pattern computer lights and moving head dyeing computer lights are equipped.
The integrated design of intelligent computer lights has higher stability than the previous mechanized lights composed of electric mechanical frame + spotlight + color changer + shading plate + special effect color wheel. The CMY color mixing system in the computer light can adjust more than 10,000 colors, which is unmatched by ordinary color changers; various graphics and even slides can be projected using replaceable gobos; two or more gobos overlap It can create ever-changing dynamic images; pattern-type computer lights can also use animation wheels to create movable water shadows, clouds, fire, rocks and other special effects. The remote-controlled sunshade can modify the shape of the light beam so that the light spot is projected onto different sets and props according to the lighting designer’s specifications. The same lamp can quickly change settings to illuminate different objects. Computer lights have excellent functions and can greatly reduce the number of effect lamps on the stage.
The computer lights are mainly arranged on the top light pole above the stage. They use DMX signals to connect to the computer console. The projection angle, brightness, changing pattern, beam size, color and other functions of the lamp can be adjusted arbitrarily, which can fully meet the needs of digital performances in various performances. Change requirements for computer lights.
11. Other effect configuration instructions: In order to better express the performance effect, a stage smoke machine, a large double-wheel bubble machine, and a strobe light are also set up on the stage to simulate real scenes in nature.
2.3. Electricity requirements for stage lighting
The total power consumption of the stage lighting power supply is _____KW, voltage is 380V, three-phase five-wire system, of which the dimming circuit is _____KW and the direct circuit is _____KW. In order to reduce interference, it is required that the main power supply line must not cross the stage performance area.
2.4. Rooms for stage lighting equipment: one stage lighting control room and one dimming silicon cabinet room.
2.5. Lighting control room
The lighting control room is a room used to control stage lighting equipment. The stage lighting control room is located in the back area of the auditorium, with an observation window that can see the entire stage. The length of the observation window shall not be less than 3 meters, the height shall not be less than 1 meter, and the clear height from the bottom edge to the ground shall be 0.8 meters. There are dimmer consoles, color changer consoles, computer light consoles, etc. in the room. The room must be ventilated, dissipated, equipped with insulated anti-static floors and wiring ducts. The clear height of the room shall not be less than 2.5 meters.
2.6. Dimmable silicon cabinet room
The dimming machine room is a supporting room for lighting control. Its location should be close to the lighting area and power distribution room it serves. It should be equipped with power distribution cabinets, silicon cabinets or pass-through cabinets. The length of the room shall not be less than 10 meters, the width shall not be less than 3.5 meters, and the clear height shall not be less than 3 meters. Since the dimming silicon cabinet generates a large amount of heat when working, forced heat dissipation equipment is required in the lighting control room.
The upper surface of the equipment base must be flat, and the surrounding area must be covered with 3mm thick patterned steel plates. The maintenance walkway on the cable trench and the indoor floor must be covered with insulating rubber; the equipment bracket is made of steel material, and the whole is welded firmly, flat, and treated with fire protection.
2.7. Stage lighting construction technology and construction safety measures (the following content is omitted)

Stage lighting design lamp position map

Outdoor stage lighting configuration list